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Monday, December 31, 2018

Chinese Dynastic Histories Translations (Early Medieval China)

Note:
This list is updated regularly. If you have any question or recommendation, please let me know. Thank you!

Recommended Readings:

Frankel, Hans H.C. Catalogue of translations from the Chinese dynastic histories for the period 220-960. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

Bielenstein, Hans. "The Six Dynasties," Vol. I,  BMFEA 68 (1996):5-324; Vol. II, BMFEA 69 (1997):5-246. 

Swartz, Wendy, Campany Robert Ford, Lu Yang, and Choo Jessey Jiun-Chyi, eds. Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A New Manual. 2017. (check the chapter "Wei Jin Nanbeichao")

三國志


魏書
v.1 武帝紀 (曹操)
*cf de Crespigny, Rafe, trans. Imperial Warlord: A Biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD.  Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2010.

v.5 后妃傳
Cutter, Robert Joe and William Crowell, trans. Empresses and consorts: selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999.

v.29 方伎傳
管輅、朱建平、周宣、華佗
DeWoskin, Kenneth J., trans. Doctors, Diviners, and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-shih. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

蜀書 
v.9 董和、劉巴、馬良、陳震、董允、呂乂
by William Crowell
https://www.academia.edu/5318635/Sanguo_zhi_39_Shu_9_Biographies_of_Dong_He_Liu_Ba_Ma_Liang_Chen_Zhen_Dong_Yun_and_L%C3%BC_Yi

v.34 二主妃子傳 
Cutter, Robert Joe and William Crowell, trans. Empresses and consorts: selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999.

v.42 譙周
Farmer, J. Michael. "Sanguo Zhi Fascicle 42: The Biography of Qiao Zhou." Early Medieval China, no. 23 (2017): 22-41.

吳書
v.46 孫堅
de Crespigny, Rafe, trans. The Biography of Sun Chien.  Canberra: Centre of Oriental Studies, Australian National University, 1966.

v.50 妃嬪傳

Cutter, Robert Joe and William Crowell, trans. Empresses and consorts: selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999.

* also cf Fang, Achilles, trans. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms  (220–265): Chapters 69–78 from the Tzu chih t’ung chien of Ssu-ma Kuang  (1019–1086). 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952–1965.

晉書

晉書 v.1 司馬懿
Fairbank, Anthony Bruce. "Ssu-Ma I (179-251): Wei Statesman and Chin Founder: An Historiographical Inquiry." PhD diss., University of Washington, 1994. (Chapter 6)

晉書 v.11-13 天文志
Ho, Peng Yoke. The Astronomical Chapters of the Chin Shu, with Amendments, Full Translation, and Annotations.  Paris: Mouton, 1966.

晉書 v.26 食貨志
Yang, Liansheng. "Notes on the Economic History of the Chin Dynasty." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 9, no. 2 (1946): 107-85.

晉書 v.36 張華
Straughair, Anna. Chang Hua: A Statesman-Poet of the Western Chin Dynasty.  Canberra: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies, 1973.

晉書 v.47 傅玄
Paper, Jordan D. The Fu-Tzu: A Post-Han Confucian Text.  Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1987.

晉書 v.54 陸雲
Wu, Sujane. "The Biography of Lu Yun (262-303) in Jin Shu 54." Early Medieval China, no. 1 (2001): 1-38.

晉書 v.65 王導
cf Wells, Matthew V. "From Spirited Youth to Loyal Official: Life Writing and Didacticism in the Jin Shu Biography of Wang Dao." Early Medieval China 21 (2015): 3-20.

晉書 v.82
習鑿齒
Chittick, Andrew. "Pride of Place: The Advent of Local History in Early Medieval China.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1997. (pp.220-230)

晉書 v.92 
顧愷之
Chen, Shih-hsiang. Biography of Ku K'ai-Chih. (Chin Shu 92.21a-22a).  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.

王沉
Declercq, Dominik. Writing against the State: Political Rhetorics in Third and Fourth Century China.  Leiden; Boston: Brill, 1998. (pp.152-158)

晉書 v.95 藝術
戴洋
DeWoskin, Kenneth J. Doctors, Diviners, and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-Shih.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

晉書 v.97 吐谷渾
Carroll, Thomas D. Account of the T'ù-Yü-Hún in the History of the Chïn Dynasty.  Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1953.

晉書 v.101 劉淵
Honey, David B. The Rise of the Medieval Hsiung-Nu: The Biography of Liu Yüan. Bloomington, Ind.: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1990.

晉書 v.113-114 苻堅
Rogers, Michael C. The rise of the Former Ch'in state and its spread under Fu Chien, through 370 A.D. based on Chin shu 113. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953.

Rogers, Michael C. The chronicle of Fu Chien: a case of exemplar history. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

晉書 v.120-121 李特 李流 李雄 李班 李期 李壽 李勢
Kleeman, Terry F. Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom.  Honolulu: University of Hawai`i Press, 1998.

晉書 v.122 呂光
Mather, Richard B. Biography of Lü Kuang.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.

宋書

宋書 v.51 宗室
劉義慶
Zhang, Zhenjun. "Observations on the Life and Works of Liu Yiqing". Early Medieval China. 2014 (20): 83-104.

宋書 v.59 張暢
Dien, Albert. "The Disputation at Pengcheng: Accounts from the Wei Shu and the Song Shu." In Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook, edited by Wendy Swartz, Campany Robert Ford, Lu Yang and Choo Jessey Jiun-Chyi, 32-59. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

宋書 v.69 范曄
cf Eicher, Sebastian. "Fan Ye's Biography in the Song Shu: Form, Content, and Impact." Early Medieval China 22 (2016): 45-64.

宋書 v.91 孝義
郭世道; 郭原平
Knapp, Keith N. "Exemplary Everymen: Guo Shidao and Guo Yuanping as Confucian Commoners." Asia Major 23, no. 1 (2010): 87-125.

魏書

魏書 v.1 序記
Holmgren, Jennifer. Annals of Tai: Early T'o-pa History; an Annotated Translation of Chapter 1 of Wei Shu. Canberra: The Australian National University, 1982.

魏書 v.13 皇后列傳
序 Preface
Balkwill, Stephanie Lynn. "Empresses, Bhikṣuṇīs, and Women of Pure Faith: Buddhism and the Politics of Patronage in the Northern Wei." PhD diss., McMaster University, 2015. (pp.347-350)

文明太后
Balkwill, Stephanie Lynn. "Empresses, Bhikṣuṇīs, and Women of Pure Faith: Buddhism and the Politics of Patronage in the Northern Wei." PhD diss., McMaster University, 2015. (pp.351-360)

靈太后
Holmgren, Jennifer. "Empress Dowager Ling of the Northern Wei and the T'o-Pa Sinicization Question." Papers in Far Eastern History 18 (1978): 160–70.

魏書 v.37 司馬楚之
Lim, Lucy. "The Northern Wei Tomb of Ssu-Ma Chin-Lung and Early Chinese Figure Painting." PhD diss., New York University, 1990. (pp.178-188)

魏書 v.53 李孝伯
Dien, Albert. "The Disputation at Pengcheng: Accounts from the Wei Shu and the Song Shu." In Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook, edited by Wendy Swartz, Campany Robert Ford, Lu Yang and Choo Jessey Jiun-Chyi, 32-59. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

魏書 v.92 列女傳
cf Holmgren, Jennifer. 1979. "Women's Biographies in the Wei-shu: A Study of the Moral Attitudes and Social Background Found in Women's Biographies in the Dynastic History of the Northern Wei." Ph.D., DePaul University.

cf Holmgren, Jennifer. 1981. "Widow Chastity in the Northern Dynasties: The Lieh-nü Biographies in the Wei-shu." Papers on Far Eastern History 23:165–186.

魏書 v.105 天象志
cf Xu, Zhentao, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang, and Institute Earth Space. East Asian Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of China, Japan and Korea.

魏書 v.111 食貨志
Blue, Rhea C. "The Argumentation of the Shih-Huo Chih: Chapters of the Han, Wei, and Sui Dynastic Histories." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 11, no. 1-2 (1948): 70-75.

魏書 v.114 釋老志
Hurvitz, Leon, trans. Treatise on Buddhism and Taoism, an English Translation of the Original Chinese Text of Wei-Shu Cxiv and the Japanese Annotation of Tsukamoto Zenryu. Kyoto: Jimbunkagaku kenkyujo, Kyoto University.

Ware, James R. "The Wei Shu and the Sui Shu on Taoism." Journal of the American Oriental Society 53, no. 3 (1933): 215-50.

北齊書

北齊書 v.37 魏收
Jamieson, John Charles. "The Biography of Wei Shou.” Mater’s thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1964.

北齊書 v.45 顏之推
Dien, Albert E. Pei Ch'ishu 45: Biography of Yen Chih-T'ui.  Bern: Herbert Lang, 1976.

周書

周書 v.11 宇文護
Dien, Albert E. Biography of Yu-wen Hu. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.

周書 v.23 蘇綽
Goodrich, Chauncey Shafter. Biography of Su Ch'o.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.

周書 v. 50 異域下
Miller, Roy Andrew. Accounts of Western Nations in the History of the Northern Chou Dynasty [Zhou Shu 50. 10b-17b] Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.

突厥
Parker E.H. "The Early Turks (From the CHOU SHU)." The China Review. 1899. Vol. 24. No.3.

北史

北史 v.13 文明太后
Gibson, Wenley Archibald. "The Grand Empress Dowager Wen Ming and the Northern Wei Necropolis at Fang Shan." Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers 1, no. 1 (1947).

北史 v.99 
突厥
Parker E.H. "The Early Turks (From the PEI SHI and the SUI SHU).” The China Review. 1900. Vol. 24. No. 4.

Parker E.H. "The Early Turks - Part II (From the PEI SHI).” The China Review. 1900. Vol. 25. No. 1.

隋書

隋書 v.24 食貨志
Blue, Rhea C. "The Argumentation of the Shih-Huo Chih: Chapters of the Han, Wei, and Sui Dynastic Histories." harvjasiastud Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 11, no. 1-2 (1948): 76-89.

隋書 v.35 經籍志
道經
Ware, James R. "The Wei Shu and the Sui Shu on Taoism." Journal of the American Oriental Society 53, no. 3 (1933): 243-50.

隋書 v.58 魏澹
Dien, Albert E. "Wei Tan and the Historiography of the Wei Shu." In Studies in Early Medieval Chinese Literature and Cultural History: In Honor of Richard B. Mather and Donald Holzman. Provo, Utah: Tʻang Studies Society, 2003.

隋書 v.84 北狄
突厥
Parker E.H. "The Early Turks (From the PEI SHI and the SUI SHU).” The China Review. 1900. Vol. 24. No. 4.

Tuesday, April 24, 2018

Linguistic Mysteries of Ethnonyms in Inner Asia

Author:
WANG, Penglin 

Publication Date:
March 2018

Publisher:
Lexington Books




Abstract:

In Linguistic Mysteries of Ethnonyms in Inner Asia, Penglin Wang focuses on semantics as a central theme in onomastics and strives to unravel the origin and meaning of a series of influential ethnonyms such as Xianbei, Rouran, Tabγač, Tatar, Shiwei, Mongol, Merkid, Nüzhen, Jušen, and Nikan. Since much of modern research has dealt with issues of Inner Asian ethnonyms within a regional framework, Wang’s exploration of the early Indo-European and Altaic influence on the ethnonymic designations of Mongol-Tungusic and Turkic groups opens up a new horizon for transcontinental approaches, which represent an important thrust in Inner Asian and Eurasian studies. Wang has based this comprehensive study on textual, cross-linguistic, and patterned analysis of the ethnonyms found primarily in ancient Chinese sources.


Table of Contents:

1. A Linguistic Approach to Ethnonyms
2. Numerals in Ethnonyms
3. Xianbei as Cold
4. Tabγač as Farmer
5. Shiwei 室韋 at the Juncture of Septenary and North
6. Mongol and Merkit as Sunrise
7. Jušen and Nikan as Deictic Expressions

Monday, April 23, 2018

Violence, Kinship and the Early Chinese State: The Shang and their World

Author:
Roderick Campbell

Publisher: 
Cambridge University Press

Publication date: 
April 2018




Abstract:

Situated between myth and history, the Shang has been hailed both as China's first historical dynasty and as one of the world's primary civilizations. This book is an up-to-date synthesis of the archaeological, palaeographic and transmitted textual evidence for the Shang polity at Anyang (c.1250–1050 BCE). Roderick Campbell argues that violence was not the antithesis of civilization at Shang Anyang, but rather its foundation in war and sacrifice. He explores the social economy of practices and beliefs that produced the ancestral order of the Shang polity. From the authority of posthumously deified kings, to the animalization of human sacrificial victims, the ancestral ritual complex structured the Shang world through its key institutions of war, sacrifice, and burial. Mediated by hierarchical lineages, participation in these practices was basic to being Shang. This volume, which is based on the most up-to-date evidence, offers comprehensive and cutting-edge insight into the Chinese Bronze Age civilization.

Table of Contents:

1. Being, society and world: towards an inter-ontic approach
2. Cities, states and civilizations
3. Central plains civilization from Erlitou to Anyang
4. The great settlement Shang and its polity: networks, boundaries and the 
    social economy
5. Kinship, place and social order
6. Violence and Shang civilization
7. Constructing the ancestors: the social economy of burial
8. Technologies of pacification and the world of the great settlement Shang

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE – 250 CE

Author: 
Craig Benjamin

Publisher: 
Cambridge University Press

Publication Date:
April 2018





Abstract:

The Silk Roads are the symbol of the interconnectedness of ancient Eurasian civilizations. Using challenging land and maritime routes, merchants and adventurers, diplomats and missionaries, sailors and soldiers, and camels, horses and ships, carried their commodities, ideas, languages and pathogens enormous distances across Eurasia. The result was an underlying unity that traveled the length of the routes, and which is preserved to this day, expressed in common technologies, artistic styles, cultures and religions, and even disease and immunity patterns. In words and images, Craig Benjamin explores the processes that allowed for the comingling of so many goods, ideas, and diseases around a geographical hub deep in central Eurasia. He argues that the first Silk Roads era was the catalyst for an extraordinary increase in the complexity of human relationships and collective learning, a complexity that helped drive our species inexorably along a path towards modernity.

Table of Contents:

Introduction
1. Pastoral nomads and the empires of the Steppe
2. Early China: prelude to the silk roads
3. Zhang Qian and Han expansion into Central Asia
4. The early Han dynasty and the Eastern Silk Roads
5. Rome and the Western Silk Roads
6. The Parthian Empire and the Silk Roads
7. The Kushan Empire: at the crossroads of ancient Eurasia
8. Maritime routes of the first Silk Roads era
9. Collapse of Empires and the decline of the first Silk Roads era
Conclusion.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

多民族社会の軍事統治: 出土史料が語る中国古代

Editor:
宮宅 潔 (MIYAKE, Kiyoshi)

Publisher:
京都大学学術出版会

Publication Date:
April 2018




Table of Contents:

はじめに
 ――共同研究の経緯と問題の所在

Ⅰ 研究動向篇
 第1章 中国古代軍事史研究の現状[宮宅 潔]
  はじめに
  1●欧米における中国軍事研究――三つの“Introduction”から
  2●中国における軍事史研究
  3●日本における中国軍事史研究――秦漢時代
  4●「軍事」への注視と史料の洗い直し

 第2章 「闘争集団」と「普遍的軍事秩序」のあいだ
     ――親衛軍研究の可能性[丸橋充拓]
  はじめに
  1●親衛軍研究の近況と展望
  2●親衛軍の二面性
  3●隋唐軍制理解への波及
  おわりに

Ⅱ 論考篇
第1部 「中華」の拡大と軍事制度:占領支配の諸相
 第3章 征服から占領統治へ
     ――里耶秦簡に見える穀物支給と駐屯軍[宮宅 潔]
  はじめに
  1●穀物支給簡の分析
   (1)穀物支給簡の形状と書式
   (2)記載内容の分析
   (3)穀物支給の実態
  2●戍卒への穀物支給
   (1)兵種と支給方法の関係
   (2)穀物の貸与とその償還
   (3)食糧自弁の原則とその限界
  おわりに

 第4章 秦代遷陵県の「庫」に関する初歩的考察[陳 偉]
  1●職掌
  2●吏員
  3●徒隷
  4●関連問題

 第5章 漢代西北辺境防備軍の社会構造h
     ――出土史料の分析に基づく方法論的考察[エノ・ギーレ]
  はじめに――典籍史料から
  1●研究上の課題と関連する問題
  2●理論上の土台と軍事制度
  3●徴兵の仕組み
  4●研究状況
  5●肩水金関漢簡から得られる情報と方法論上の問題点

 第6章 漢代長城警備体制の変容[鷹取祐司]
  はじめに
  1●戍卒出身地の変化
   (1)戍卒の出身地記載があり年代が確定できる簡の集成
   (2)肩水金関址出土戍卒簡の時期分布
  2●成帝中期以降における戍卒の出身地変化の背景
   (1)「住―歳―更」制の動揺
   (2)「庸」の拡大とその問題化
  3●居延における長城警備体制の変容
   (1)居延地域の戍卒総数
   (2)吏卒家属の烽燧同居
   (3)戍卒の「庸」化と家属同居
   (4)騎士の烽燧勤務
  おわりに

第2部 軍事制度よりみた古代帝国の構造
 第7章 秦漢「内史―諸郡」武官変遷考
      ――軍事体制より日常行政体制への転換を背景として[孫 聞博]
  はじめに
  1●秦及び漢初における「内史―諸郡」の武官の対等構造
  2●武帝以降における地方武官の「辺地化」の趨勢
  3●後漢の軍事組織の「辺地化」と地方の屯兵

 第8章 漢代における周辺民族と軍事
     ――とくに属国都尉と異民族統御官を中心に[佐藤達郎]
  はじめに
  1●漢代における周辺民族の軍事動員とその歴史的影響
  2●漢代における周辺民族の管理
   (1)属国都尉
   (2)「異民族統御官」
  3●属国都尉下の諸民族管理と軍事動員
   (1)属国下の諸民族管理
   (2)軍事動員
   (3)軍役以外の諸雑役への使役
  4●「異民族統御官」下の周辺民族管理と軍事動員――特に烏桓校尉、護羌校尉の場合
   (1)烏桓校尉
   (2)護羌校尉
  5●「帰義蛮夷」をめぐって

 第9章 漢帝国の辺境支配と部都尉[金 秉駿]
  はじめに
  1●部都尉は異民族を主管する特殊機構か
  2●部都尉は郡県に比べて緩やかな政策を展開したか
  3●部都尉は郡都尉とは別の特殊組織か
  4●部都尉は異民族の民事を統御する「治民機関」か
  おわりに

第3部 「中華」の転換と再編:多民族社会における軍事と支配
 第10章 前秦政権における「民族」と軍事[藤井律之]
  はじめに
  1●前秦の兵力
   (1)前秦史概観
   (2)兵力動員数の推移
   (3)動員兵数増加の要因
  2●石刻史料にみえる「民族」と軍事
   (1)鄧太尉祠碑と広武将軍□産碑
   (2)「雑戸」と軍事
   (3)前秦梁阿広墓誌
  3●氐戸の分徙
  おわりに

 第11章 北魏道武帝の「部族解散」と高車部族に対する羈縻支配[佐川英治]
  はじめに
  1●高車伝「得別為部落」条の検討
  2●道武帝と高車諸部族
  3●柔然の勃興
  4●護高車中郎将と附国高車
  おわりに

 第12章 唐前半期における羈縻州・蕃兵・軍制に関する覚書
      ――営州を事例として[森部 豊]
  はじめに
  1●唐代営州の沿革
  2●営州管内の羈縻州と軍府
  3●初唐期の行軍と契丹系軍府
  おわりに

 第13章 唐代高句麗・百済系蕃将の待遇及び生存戦略[李基天]
  1●問題の所在
  2●唐前期における蕃将中の諸衛将軍の任命傾向
  3●高句麗・百済系蕃将の入仕類型
  4●高句麗・百済系蕃将の武官号及び唐朝の待遇
  5●蕃将の勢力基盤
  6●結びに代えて――唐朝の蕃将に対する認識及び蕃将の生存戦略

後記

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Das Hou Han ji des Yuan Hong: Zur Historiographie der Späteren Han-Dynastie

Author:
Eicher, Sebastian

Publication Date:
March 2018

Publisher:
Harrassowitz Verlag



Abstract:

In der Zeit nach dem Fall der Späteren Han-Dynastie 後漢 (25–220) begannen zahlreiche Geschichtsschreiber, das auf kaiserlichen Auftrag hin kompilierte offizielle Geschichtswerk der Dynastie, das Dongguan Han ji 東觀漢記, zu überarbeiten und zu kürzen. Innerhalb von ca. 200 Jahren entstand auf diese Weise ein rundes Dutzend Werke, die allesamt aus denselben Quellen schöpften, die Geschichte jedoch jeweils ein wenig anders erzählten. Bis heute überdauert haben davon nur zwei, Fan Yes 范曄 (398–446) Hou Han shu 後漢 書und Yuan Hongs 袁宏 (330–378) Hou Han ji 後漢紀. Diese sind jedoch weit davon entfernt, gleichberechtigt nebeneinanderzustehen. Während das Hou Han shu in den Kreis der 24 Dynastiegeschichten aufgenommen wurde und seit langem die wichtigste Quelle für die Spätere Han-Dynastie darstellt, verschwand das Hou Han ji nahezu vollkommen in seinem Schatten und wurde häufig als eine Art Kurzversion des eigentlichen Geschichtswerks abgetan. 

Sebastian Eicher zeigt in seiner Studie auf der Grundlage von Vergleichen der Darstellung wichtiger Ereignisse und Figuren in den beiden Werken und in den fragmentarisch erhaltenen Vorgängerversionen, dass in vielen Fällen eine alternative Darstellung und Interpretation der Ereignisse unberücksichtigt blieb und dass die Lektüre des Hou Han ji wertvolle Einblicke in die Arbeitsweise mittelalterlicher chinesischer Geschichtsschreiber liefern kann. Denn auch wenn beide Autoren aus derselben Materialbasis schöpften, so stellten sie doch nicht immer dieselben Fragen an die Geschichte und wählten nach anderen Kriterien aus: Das Ergebnis sind zwei durchaus unterschiedliche Darstellungen der Späteren Han-Dynastie.

Table of Contents:

Einleitung: Eine   andere Geschichte aus  bekannten Elementen
Kapitel 1:  Die   Geschichtsschreibung zur   Späteren Han-Dynastie
Kapitel 2:  Wie   man   Geschichte schreibt
Kapitel 3:  Das   Gengshi-Interregm
Kapitel 4:  Guangwus Kaisergemahlinnen 
Kapitel 5:  Die   zwei    Gesichter des   Dou   Xian
Kapitel 6:  Der   Auslöser der   Parteiungs-Proskription 
Kapitel 7:  Das   Verhältnis von  Cao   Cao   und   Kaiser Xian
Kapitel 8: Das Ziel des Hou Han ji
Schluss: Nachwirken und Bedeutung des Hou Han ji