[公告] 「港台學術資訊」不是我的微博

Saturday, April 22, 2017

[Dissertation] A Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Effects of the Xiongnu Empire on the Physical Health of Nomadic Groups in Iron Age Mongolia

Joseph, Veronica Adelle


Boston University


The Xiongnu Empire (c. 200 BC – AD 100) was the first instance of imperial level organization by nomadic groups of the Mongolian steppe. Over a century of historical and archaeological research has produced a large body of scholarship on the political, military, and sociocultural structures of Xiongnu society. This study adds to the growing body of recent bioarchaeological research by using multiple lines of evidence to address the impacts of empire formation on the physical health of those who lived under the influence of Xiongnu rule.

Models of Xiongnu empire formation posit stable access to Chinese agricultural goods and reduction in violent conflict as major motivating factors in establishing imperial-level organization among Mongolian nomadic groups. By gathering data from the skeletal remains of 349 individuals from 27 archaeological sites and analyzing the frequency of 10 dietary and health indicators, this study addresses these claims. The Xiongnu imperial expansion and administration resulted in the movement and/or displacement of nomadic groups, consequences that are documented in Chinese historical texts, but its impact on population structure is poorly understood. Craniometric data collected from this skeletal sample were used to conduct a model-bound biological distance analysis and fit to an unbiased relationship matrix to determine the amount of intra- and inter-group variation, and estimate the biological distance between different geographic and temporal groups.

This skeletal sample includes individuals from 19 Xiongnu-period sites located across the region under Xiongnu imperial control. Individuals from eight Bronze Age sites in Mongolia were included to establish pre-Xiongnu health status. One agricultural site within the Han empire, contemporaneous with the Xiongnu, was included for comparison.

The results of this study indicate that Xiongnu motivations for creating a nomadic empire were considerably more complex than current models suggest. Although historical texts document that the Xiongnu received agricultural products as tribute from China, dietary markers indicate the Xiongnu diet was more similar to that of their Bronze Age predecessors than to their agricultural Han neighbors. The movement of people across the Mongolian steppe during the Xiongnu period created a more phenotypically homogeneous population structure than that of previous Bronze Age groups.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The Xiongnu Empire: Ecological, Historical, and Archaeological Context
Chapter 3. Models of Nomadic Empire Formation and Research Questions 
Chapter 4. Bioarchaeological Models
Chapter 5. Research Collections and Data Sample
Chapter 6. Data Collection Methods
Chapter 7. Data Analysis
Chapter 8. Discussion
Chapter 9. Conclusion

Saturday, April 15, 2017

[Dissertation] Cult and Calendars in the Ancient Empires of Qin, Han, and Rome

Rebecca Robinson

McGill University

Department of History and Classical Studies



Cult and Calendars in the Ancient Empires of Qin, Han, and Rome is a comparison of reforms made to imperial cult and calendar during the formative years of empire.  As distinct from ruler cult, I define imperial cult as cult activity worshiped both by the emperor and on his authority.  The early years of the Qin Han and Roman empires saw imperially-sponsored cult increase dramatically, and saw the positioning of the person of the emperor at the centre of all cult activity.  In both empires, reforms to state cult and calendars were initiated as part of a larger program of consolidating power around the person of the emperor.  Despite the very different challenges facing the emperors of Han and Rome, there is a remarkable similarity in the areas in which they chose to consolidate their power, as well as the methods through which they carried out their reforms.  In both empires, the rulers sought the advice of advisors from outside of the traditional elite, incorporating astronomical and religious knowledge from diverse regions and peoples.  This outside knowledge and practices were then incorporated into state cult, reshaping the way that the emperors and their subordinates worshipped.  I argue that these reforms to cult, and the incorporation of outside knowledge, was fundamental to the consolidation of power in the person of the emperor. 

Examining the expansion of cult practices, calendrical reforms, and spectacular performances, the dissertation uncovers the processes in the transformation of imperial cult to fit the changing needs of empire.  Rather than seeking parallels in belief systems or cult practice, the dissertation compares the ways in which religious institutions both shaped and communicated a new imperial order.  The juxtaposition of the two societies reveals not only the similarities and differences in these processes, but also the biases of historical sources and subsequent scholarship in both fields.

Thursday, April 13, 2017


楢山満照 (Narayama, Mitsuteru)



Table of Contents:

緒論 四川の造形美術と地域文化
1 四川の造形美術をめぐる本書の問題意識
2 後漢の美術を見据えた「四川」という視座

第1部 銅鏡の生産体制と官営工房の動向

序章 後漢鏡研究における四川という極

第一章 広漢郡製作の紀年鏡の資料的意義
1 広漢郡製作鏡の概要
2 広漢郡製作鏡をめぐる問題の所在

第二章 広漢郡製作の元興元年銘鏡の製作事情:紀年の偏在に関する考察その一
1 銘文をめぐる問題
2 工官の活動とその製品
3 尚方の動向と工官への影響
4 宦官勢力の伸張と元興元年銘鏡

第三章 桓帝・霊帝代の作例の製作事情:紀年の偏在に関する考察その二
1 元興元年以降の官営工房の動向
2 桓帝代の官営工房の動向
3 霊帝代の官営工房の動向
終章 広漢郡製作鏡の意義と官営工房の動向

第2部 漢代画像と儒教の礼教主義

序章 儒教による支配と図像表現にみる地域色

第一章 四川における「聖人」の一表現:三段式神仙鏡の図像解釈をめぐって
1 三段式神仙鏡の図像と従来の解釈
2 四川出土作品による図像解釈の再検討
3 四川出土作品の製作地
4 劉向『列女伝』と「尭賜舜二女」の役割
5 聖人の図像表現とその志向

第二章 漢代画像にみる聖帝像の機能
1 服部コレクションの三段式神仙鏡
2 三段式神仙鏡にみる聖帝像の機能
3 漢代画像石にみる尭舜禅譲図

第三章 仏教受容前夜の四川:その死生観に関する図像学的考察
1 後漢の神仙方術的仏教と四川:問題の所在
2 墓域における石閾の位置と役割
3 石閾にみる図像と歴史故事の役割
4 歴史故事図像の表現と石閾造営者の意図

第四章 漢代画像石にみる荊軻刺秦王図:義士の英雄化と神仙化の契機をめぐって
1 荊軻刺秦王図の基本構造
2 陝西省神木県出土作品にみる柱の表現と崑崙山
3 銅柱をめぐるイメージの混交

終章 画像資料からみた儒教的徳目実践の目的

結論 後漢の美術における四川の位置付け


Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Intellectual Activism in Knowledge Organization: A Hermeneutic Study of the Seven Epitomes (七略)

Lee Hur-Li

Publication Year:
July 2016

Taipei: National Taiwan University Press


Chinese bibliography has a long history and tradition of its own, going back two millennia. It resembles critical bibliography, incorporates key features of today’s library cataloging and classification (a branch of enumerative bibliography), and shares significant common ground with intellectual history. This rich bibliographic tradition has not intersected with other traditions and is known only to scholars of Chinese bibliography, intellectual history, and classical studies. In the field of knowledge organization, it is a virtual unknown and, thus, presents excellent opportunities for research.

Intellectual Activism in Knowledge Organization is an interdisciplinary analysis of the Chinese bibliographic tradition written for a wide audience. In particular, the study investigates the classification applied in the Seven Epitomes《七略》, the first library catalog on record in Chinese history, completed a few years before the Common Era. It is important to study this classification, which is said to have established the model for the entire Chinese bibliographic tradition, where classification has always been an integral part and the sole mechanism for organization. While influential, neither the classificatory principles nor the structure of the classification are well understood. In the book, Lee Hur-Li conducts a hermeneutic study of three main aspects of the classification: the classification’s epistemology, its overall classificatory mechanics, and its concept of author as an organizing element. Taking a socio-epistemological approach, the study applies an analytical framework to the examination of the classification in its proper social, cultural, historical, and technological contexts. Lee concludes by summarizing the major achievements of the classification and articulating implications of the findings for various disciplines.

Table of Contents:

Periodization of Chinese Dynasties
Emperors of the Qin, Former Han, and Xin Dynasties
Conventions in Romanization and Chinese Characters
Foreword/Richard P. Smiraglia

1. Introduction
 A brief literary history
 The history of Chinese bibliography
 Knowledge, knowledge organization, and social influences
 A hermeneutic study

2. Background
 The monumental collation project
 Separate Résumés, Seven Epitomes, and “Han Bibliographic Treatise”
 Polymaths Liu Xiang 劉向 and Liu Xin 劉歆
 Framing the study

3. The Composition
 The Collective Epitome
 The main classes and their divisions
 Individual entries
 Bibliographic purposes and objectives

4. The Epistemic Foundation
 Knowledge and knowing according to Ru 儒 Classicism
 Knowledge and knowing in the Seven Epitomes
 Debating the debatable

5. The Mechanics
 Dichotomies and categories
 Ranked dichotomies and hierarchies
 Principles and irregularities

6. Authorship
 What is an author or a work?
 Author information in the Seven Epitomes
 Personal names versus cultural icons
 Author and the knowledge structure

7. Conclusions: Achievements and Influences
 A groundbreaking tool for organizing a library
 A decisive force in scholarship
 An authoritative but controversial intellectual history
 Intellectual activism in knowledge organization
 Influence in Chinese bibliography
 The future: Implications across disciplines

Appendix A: The Collective Epitome of the Seven Epitomes
Appendix B: Chinese Names in Chinese Characters and pinyin

Sunday, April 2, 2017

The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE - 900 CE)

Wiebke Denecke, Wai-yee Li, and Xiaofei Tian

Oxford University Press

Publication Date:
April, 2017


This volume introduces readers to classical Chinese literature from its beginnings (ca. 10th century BCE) to the tenth century CE. It asks basic questions such as: How did reading and writing practices change over these two millennia? How did concepts of literature evolve? What were the factors that shaped literary production and textual transmission? How do traditional bibliographic categories, modern conceptions of genre, and literary theories shape our understanding of classical Chinese literature? What are the recurrent and evolving concerns of writings within the period under purview? What are the dimensions of human experience they address? Why is classical Chinese literature important for our understanding of pre-modern East Asia? How does the transmission of this literature in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam define cultural boundaries? And what, in turn, can we learn from the Chinese-style literatures of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, about Chinese literature? In addressing these questions, the Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature departs from standard literary histories and sourcebooks. It does not simply categorize literary works according to periods, authors, or texts. Its goal is to offer a new conceptual framework for thinking about classical Chinese literature by defining a four-part structure. The first section discusses the basics of literacy and includes topics such as writing systems, manuscript culture, education, and loss and preservation in textual transmission. It is followed by a second section devoted to conceptions of genre, textual organization, and literary signification throughout Chinese history. A third section surveys literary tropes and themes. The final section takes us beyond China to the surrounding cultures that adopted Chinese culture and produced Chinese style writing adapted to their own historical circumstances. The volume is sustained by a dual foci: the recuperation of historical perspectives for the period it surveys and the attempt to draw connections between past and present, demonstrating how the viewpoints and information in this volume yield insights into modern China and east Asia.

Table of Contents:

Contributor List
Timeline of Chinese Dynasties

1. Key Concepts of 2. Periodization and Major Inflection Points (Stephen Owen)

I. Technology and Media
Editor's Introduction (Xiaofei Tian)
3. The Chinese Writing System (Imre Galambos)
4. Literary Media: Writing and Orality (Christopher M. B. Nugent)
5. Manuscript Culture (Christopher M. B. Nugent)
6. The Relationship of Calligraphy and Painting to Literature (Ronald Egan)

II. Institutions of Literary Culture
Editor's Introduction (Xiaofei Tian)
7. Education and the Examination System (Rebecca Doran)
8. Text and Commentary: The Early Tradition (Michael Puett)
9. Text and Commentary in the Medieval Period (Yu-yu Cheng 鄭毓瑜)
10. Literary Learning: Encyclopedias and Epitomes (Xiaofei Tian)
11. Libraries, Book Catalogues, Lost Writings (Glen Dudbridge)

I. Traditional Genre Spectrum
Editor's Introduction (Wai-yee Li)
12. Classics (David Schaberg)
13. Histories (Stephen Durrant)
14. Masters (Wiebke Denecke)
15. Collections (Xiaofei Tian)

II. Modern Perspectives on Genre
Editor's Introduction (Wai-yee Li)
16. 17. Elite and Popular Literature (Wilt Idema)
18. Narrative Genres (Sarah Allen)

III. Collecting, Editing, Transmitting
Editor's Introduction (Xiaofei Tian)
19. Pre-Tang Anthologies and Anthologization (David R. Knechtges)
20. Anthologies in the Tang (Paul W. Kroll)
21. The Song Reception of Earlier Literature (Stephen Owen)
22. Textual Transmission of Earlier Literature during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties (Wai-yee Li)

IV. Literature and Metaliterature
Editor's Introduction (Wiebke Denecke)
23. Defenses of Literature/Literary Thought/Poetics (Paul Rouzer)
24. Concepts of Authorship (Wai-yee Li)
25. Tradition Formation: Beginnings to Eastern Han (Stephen Durrant)
26. Classicisms in Chinese Literary Culture: Six Dynasties through Tang (Anna Shields)

Editor's Introduction (Wai-yee Li)
27. Moments (Paula Varsano)
28. Sites I (Jack Chen)
29. Sites II (Wendy Swartz)
30. Figures (Wai-yee Li)

Editor's Introduction (Wiebke Denecke)
31. Colonization, Sinicization, and the Multigraphic Northwest (Tamara T. Chin)
32. Translation (Daniel Boucher)
33. Shared Literary Heritage in the Sinographic Sphere (Wiebke Denecke, with contributions by Nam Nguyen)
34. Sino-Korean Literature (Peter Kornicki)
35. Early Sino-Japanese Literature (Wiebke Denecke)
36. Sino-Vietnamese Literature (Peter Kornicki)