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Wednesday, July 27, 2016

[Dissertation] Placing Ye 鄴: The City and its Representation in Literature

Author:
Tsao, Joanne

University:
Arizona State University

Publication Year:
2016

Advisor:
Cutter, Robert J.

Abstract:

This dissertation examines the history of the early medieval city Ye 鄴 and its place in the literary tradition. Ye was the powerbase of the warlord Cao Cao 曹操 (155–220) and the birthplace of the Jian’an 建安 literature. It was also the capital city of the Later Zhao 後趙 (319–349), the Former Yan 前燕 (337–370), the Eastern Wei 東魏 (534–550), and the Northern Qi 北齊 (550–577). Through a contextualized close reading of a variety of literary and historical texts, including poems, prose, scholar notes, and local gazetteers, this study shows how Ye, destroyed in 580, continued to live on in various forms of representation and material remains, and continued to evolve as an imagined space that held multiple interpretations. 

The interpretations are represented in works that treat the heroic enterprise of Cao Cao in founding the city, the double-sided poems that collapsed celebration and themes of carpé diem in the Jian'an era, and in tropes of sorrow and lamentation on the glories, or ruins, of the city that had passed its life in a brilliant flash, and then was lost to time and text. Ye’s most iconic structure, the Bronze Bird Terrace, developed a distinct terrace-scape, a nearly mythical space where poets tangled with questions of sorrow, consciousness after death, and lamentation for women forced to serve their lord long after his demise. The last material vestiges of the city, its tiles which were shaped into inkstones, created a discourse in the Song and Yuan periods of heavy censure of Cao Cao's exercise of power and his supposed eventual failure of ambition and retreat to concern over meaningless material possessions. 

Over the years, these representations have seen in Ye a fertile ground, either experienced or imagined, where questions about political rise and fall and about the meaning of human life could be raised and partially answered. This dissertation looks closely at the ambivalent attitudes of writers through the ages about, and at their sometimes ambiguous representation of, the status and meaning of that ancient city.

Saturday, July 23, 2016

唐代文人疾病攷

Author:
小髙 修司 

Publication Date:
2016/07/15

Publisher:
知泉書館


Abstract:

中国唐代の6名の文人,白居易,杜甫,李商隠,柳宗元,温庭筠,蘇軾の詩詞に現れた医学関連用語を検討し,当時の医学的常識を踏まえて彼らの医学と養生に関する事跡から,どのような環境や習慣が文人たちの疾病や老化,死因になったかを明らかにする。

白居易は病弱多病で頭痛眩暈,眼病,半身不随,ストレスによる肺疾患に罹り,白髪,歯脱などの老化が速かった。杜甫は窮貧や船上生活などにより風邪に悩まされ,老齢のなかでの過剰な性生活による腎疾患,飲酒や喫茶習慣に由来する様々な病状,そして生薬への関心を強めた。李商隠は遺伝による糖尿病を患い,それによる眼疾患や腎不全,心不全などの二次病態が原因で47歳で死亡した。柳宗元が流謫された永州や柳州は暑湿の地で種々の疾病が流行る土地柄であった。環境と身の不遇の中で,散策や腹式呼吸,さらに「荘子」や仏教に親しんで,不安定な心身の状態に耐えようと苦心した。温庭筠の詩文の過剰なまでの修飾表現は,他者との関係を取り持てないアスペルガー症候群に由来する。蘇軾は眼や耳,そして痔に悩まされたが,医薬,養生への関心と知識を広く伝えようと努めた。本書は中国古典文学の疾病に関する貴重な報告である。

Table of Contents:

目  次

まえがき

一 白居易(楽天)疾病攷
 一 基礎的な事歴
 二 儒仏道三教の関わりについて
 三 疾病について
 まとめ

二 白居易「風痺」攷
 一 風痺=中風説について
 二 風偏枯について
 三 脚気について
 四 風痺について
 五 頭風について
 結語

三 杜甫疾病攷
 一 時代背景――疾病史と気候史
 二 先天の生命力――「腎」の盛衰
 三 後天的な病因
 四 医学用語の考察
 五 薬物と関連事項
 六 まとめ

四 杜甫と白居易の病態比較――特に白居易の服石の検証
 一 先天の本=「腎」の状況について
 二 外因について
 三 内因について
 四 不内外因について
 五 焼丹について
 六 白居易の服石について
 七 まとめ

五 李商隠疾病攷
 一 家族歴を考える
 二 病状の記述
 三 「瘦骨」「廻腸」について
 四 消渇の病について
 五 眼症状について
 六 「瘴」と「瘧」の記録
 七 まとめ

六 柳宗元疾病攷
 一 外的環境の影響
 二 精神が及ぼした影響
 三 柳州時代の病態――死因の考察
 四 その他の課題
 五 まとめ

七 温庭筠(飛卿)疾病攷

付録 蘇軾(東坡居士)を通して宋代の医学・養生を考える
    ――古代の気候・疫病史を踏まえて『傷寒論』の校訂を考える
 一 蘇軾の道教(特に内丹法)との関わり
 二 宋までの気候・疫病史
 三 聖散子方から傷寒と時行寒疫を考える
 四 詩詞に見られる蘇軾自身の疾病
 五 結語

おわりに
初出一覧

Monday, July 18, 2016

A Good Son Is Sad if He Hears the Name of His Father: The Tabooing of Names in China as a Way of Implementing Social Values

Author:
Piotr Adamek

Publisher:
Sankt Augustin, Germany : Institut Monumenta Serica

Publication Date:
2015. 9.30




Abstract:

When in 1775 the scholar Wang Xihou 王錫侯 compiled a dictionary called Ziguan 字貫, he wrote, for illustrative purposes, the personal names of Confucius and the three emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong in the introduction. In oversight, he recorded their complete names. This accidental writing of a few names was condemned by Emperor Qianlong as an unprecedented crime, rebellion and high treason. Wang Xihou was executed, his property confiscated and his books were burnt. His family was arrested and his sons and grandsons were killed or sent as slaves to Heilongjiang. 

It is surprising what an enormous impact the tabooing of names (bihui 避諱) had on Chinese culture. The names of sovereigns, ancestors, officials, teachers, and even friends were all considered taboo, in other words it was prohibited to pronounce them or to record them in writing. In numerous cases characters identical or similar in writing or pronunciation were often avoided as well. The tabooing of names was observed in the family and on the street, in the office and in the emperor’s palace. The practice of bihui had serious consequences for the daily lives of the Chinese and for Chinese historiography. People even avoided certain places and things, and refused to accept offices. They were punished and sometimes even killed in connection with the tabooing of names. The bihui custom existed as an important element of Chinese culture and was perceived as significant by Chinese and foreigners alike. It was crucial for implementing social values and demonstrating the political hierarchy. 

The present work A Good Son Is Sad if He Hears the Name of His Father is a systematic study of Chinese name-tabooing customs, which until now have been relatively little explored in Western-language Sinological studies. It attempts to provide a long-term perspective on the changing dynamics of tabooing and elucidates various aspects related to the fascinating topic of tabooing of names.

Table of Contents:

Chapter One: Introduction

Chapter Two: Taboo and Name

Chapter Three: Basic Characteristics of Name Tabooing

Chapter Four: Beginnings of the Custom of Name Taboo in China

Chapter Five: Name Tabooing from the Han to Southern and Northern Dynasties

Chapter Six: Culmination of the Custom of Name Taboo

Chapter Seven: Last Centuries of Name Tabooing

Chapter Eight: Consequences of Name Taboo for Chinese People

Chapter Nine: Historiographical Consequences and the Basics of the Discipline of Name Tabooing

Chapter Ten: Special Topics of Name Tabooing

Bibliography

Chronological Index of Taboo Names of Emperors and Other Famous Persons

Alphabetical Index of Taboo Characters

Table: Confucian Officials Executed for Taboo Mistakes 

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Celestial Masters: History and Ritual in Early Daoist Communities

Author:
Terry F. Kleeman

Publisher:
Harvard University Press

Publication Date:
2016.7.11




Abstract:

In 142 CE, the divine Lord Lao descended to Mount Cranecall (Sichuan province) to establish a new covenant with humanity through a man named Zhang Ling, the first Celestial Master. Facing an impending apocalypse caused by centuries of sin, Zhang and his descendants forged a communal faith centering on a universal priesthood, strict codes of conduct, and healing through the confession of sins; this faith was based upon a new, bureaucratic relationship with incorruptible supernatural administrators. By the fourth century, Celestial Master Daoism had spread to all parts of China, and has since played a key role in China’s religious and intellectual history.

Celestial Masters is the first book in any Western language devoted solely to the founding of the world religion Daoism. It traces the movement from the mid-second century CE through the sixth century, examining all surviving primary documents in both secular and canonical sources to offer a comprehensive account of the development of this poorly understood religion. It also provides a detailed analysis of ritual life within the movement, covering the roles of common believer or Daoist citizen, novice, and priest or libationer.

Table of Contents:

List of Illustrations
Acknowledgments
Introduction

I. History

1. The Founding of the Celestial Master Church: External Evidence
The Record of the Three Kingdoms
Zhang Xiu and Liu Yan
The Hanzhong Theocracy
Daoist Institutions and Life in Hanzhong

2. The Founding of the Celestial Master Church: Internal Documents
The Revelation to Zhang Ling
The Zhang Pu Stele of 173
The Laozi and the Xiang’er Commentary
Daoists and the Profane
Authority in the Xiang’er

3. After the Fall: Daoism in the Third Century
Yangping Parish
Church Offices
The Parish System
Commands and Precepts for the Great Family of the Dao
Demon Statutes of Lady Blue
Prohibitions and Taboos
The Merging of the Pneumas Rite
Demons and the Dao

4. Daoism under the Northern and Southern Dynasties
The Li Family and the Cheng-Han State
North China: The Northern Wei and Northern Zhou
South China: Gentry Daoism and Sun En

II. Ritual and Community

5. Ritual Life
The Oratory
The Parish
Daoist Attire

6. The Daoist Citizen
Precepts
The Daily Audience
The Assemblies
The Kitchens

7. The Novice
The Register
Ordination
Promotion
Gender, Class, and Ethnicity
Appendix: “The Codes and Precepts for Disciples in Serving Their Masters”

8. The Libationer
The Itinerant Evangelist and the Parish Master
The Parish System
The Libationer and Spirit Revelation
The Libationer as Judge
The Libationer as Pastor
Petitions
Rules for Submitting Petitions
Writing the Petition
How to Submit a Petition
Types of Petition
How to Draw a Talisman
Pledge Offerings
Rituals for the Dead

Epilogue
Bibliography
Index


Monday, July 4, 2016

[Dissertation] Shaping Religious and Cultural Aspiration: Engraved Sutras in Southwestern Shandong Province from the Northern Qi Dynasty (550-577 CE), China

Author:
Ha, Jungmin

School:
Duke University

Year:
2016

Advisor:
Abe, Stanley K.

Abstract:

This dissertation explores how the Buddhist texts carved on the cliffs of mountains served their patrons’ religious and cultural goals. During the Northern Qi period (550-577 CE), these carved Buddhist sutra texts and Buddha names were prevalent, and were carved directly onto the surfaces of numerous mountains in southwestern Shandong Province. 

The special focus of this study is on the Buddhist engravings at Mt. Hongding 洪頂 in Dongping 東平, and at Mt. Tie 鐵 in Zoucheng 鄒城. Created in approximately 553-564 CE, the carvings at Mt. Hongding stand as the terminus a quo of the history of Buddhist sutras carved into the rocks of the Shandong mountains. The Buddhist carvings at Mt. Hongding served monastic goals. The monk patrons, Seng’an Daoyi 僧安道壹, Fahong 法洪, and others created the carvings as an integral part of their Buddhist meditation practices. 

The carvings at Mt. Tie paint a very different picture. At Mt. Tie, a colossal Buddhist sculpture-style carving was created in 579 CE. Sponsored by several Han Chinese patrons, the carving was designed in the form of a gigantic Chinese traditional stele. This study suggests that several Han Chinese local elites proudly displayed their Han Chinese linage by using the gigantic stele form of Buddhist text carving as a means to proclaim Han Chinese cultural and artistic magnificence. To achieve these non-religious goals, they appropriated rhetorical devices often used by the Han elite, such as the stele form, written statements about the excellence of the calligraphy used, and discourse on calligraphy connoisseurship.

Friday, July 1, 2016

La fabrique du lisible: La mise en texte des manuscrits de la Chine ancienne et médiévale

Author: 
Jean Pierre Drège; Costantino Moretti

Publisher: 
Paris : Collège de France, Institut des hautes études chinoises

Publication Year: 
2014

Abstract:

La fabrique du lisible rassemble 51 contributions consacrées aux manuscrits chinois anciens et médiévaux. Le livre chinois est ici abordé sous tous ses aspects. Une attention particulière est accordée à la forme des livres et à leur mise en texte. 

Si la plupart des articles concernent la période médiévale, et en particulier les manuscrits de Dunhuang, plusieurs contributions sont aussi consacrées à des manuscrits de l’époque des Han. La prise en compte de l’évolution du livre chinois sur la longue durée constitue une des spécificités de cette étude. 

La fabrique du lisible bénéficie en outre d’un grand nombre d’illustrations couleur qui permettent de se représenter très clairement les différents types de manuscrits décrits et analysés dans cet ouvrage.



Table of Contents:

Textes du Canon confucéen et philologie  (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Le Livre des Mutations 周易 (Dimitri Drettas)

Le Livre des Documents 尚書 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Le Livre des Odes 詩經 (Olivier Venture)

Le Cérémonial de Mozuizi 磨嘴子儀禮  (Olivier Venture)

Les Printemps et Automnes 春秋 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Le Livre de la Piété filiale 孝經 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

L’Approche de la perfection (Françoise Bottéro)

Les Entretiens de Confucius 論語 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les manuels de caractères de l’époque Qin-Han (Françoise Bottéro)

Les livres de rimes 切韻 (Françoise Bottéro)

La Liste essentielle des noms corrects 正名要錄 (Françoise Bottéro)

Les recueils d’anecdotes historiques (Olivier Venture)

L’Histoire des Han 漢書 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les recensions manuscrites du Laozi 老子 (Dimitri Drettas)

Les Six arcanes stratégiques 六韜 (Olivier Venture)

Les calendriers (Alain Arrault)

Le manuscrit arithmétique de Zhangjiashan 張家山算數書 (Jean-Claude Martzloff)

Le Livre des Calculs 算經 (Jean-Claude Martzloff)

Deux types de manuscrits mantiques (Dimitri Drettas)

Les recueils de matière médicale本草 (Éric Trombert)

Les recettes médicamenteuses 藥方 (Catherine Despeux)

Les encyclopédies 類書  (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les manuels de correspondance 書儀 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Un poème des Han : L’« Exposition du corbeau prodigieux » de Yinwan 尹灣神烏傅 (Valérie Lavoix)

L’Anthologie des belles-lettres 文選 (Valérie Lavoix)

Les registres surimposés de deux copies anciennes du Dharmapāda (Costantino Moretti)

Les divisions du Sūtra du Lotus 法華經  (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Le Sūtra du Diamant 金剛經 (Sylvie Hureau)

Les copies signées du Sūtra d’Amitāyus 無量壽經 (Costantino Moretti)

Les commentaires de sūtra bouddhiques (Sylvie Hureau)

L’organisation du texte et du commentaire dans le Traité de la grande vertu de sagesse 大智度論 (Costantino Moretti)

Notes et Catégories doctrinales du Traité des étapes de la pratique du yoga 瑜伽師地論分門記 (Costantino Moretti)

Techniques de repérage dans un recueil d’interprétations de termes bouddhiques 法門名義集 (Costantino Moretti)

Un talisman-dhāraṇī (Christine Mollier)

La table des matières de l’Essentiel des secrets suprêmes 無上袐要 (Christine Mollier)

Le stūpa du Sūtra du coeur de la perfection de gnose 般若波羅蜜多心經  (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Deux diagrammes de cosmologie bouddhique (Françoise Wang-Toutain)

Le diagramme des explications doctrinales d’un commentaire au Traité sur la production de la foi dans le Grand Véhicule 大乘起信論 (Françoise Wang-Toutain)

Les dhāraṇī des neuf planètes 九曜真言 en forme de vajra (Françoise Wang-Toutain)

Les manuscrits illustrés (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les cartes géographiques dans la Chine ancienne (Olivier Venture)

Ponctuation, balises et autres signes de lecture (Olivier Venture et Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les pièces de soie 帛書 (Olivier Venture)

Les tablettes 木牘 (Olivier Venture)

Les rouleaux de lattes de bois et de bambou 木竹簡 (Olivier Venture)

Les rouleaux de papier 卷軸 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les ôles chinoises 貝多 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les reliures en sūtra 經摺裝 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les livres en tourbillon旋風裝 (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Les codices (Jean-Pierre Drège)

Manuscrits et pièces insolites (Jean-Pierre Drège)