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Thursday, June 22, 2017

Buddhist Stone Sutras in China: Shandong Province 3: With an essay by Zheng Yan (中國佛教石經:山東省:第三卷)

Editors:
Suey-Ling, Tsai 蔡穗玲
Yongbo, Wang 王永波

Publisher:
Harrassowitz

Publication date:
1 June 2017




Abstract:

The third volume of the five-volume series on Buddhist stone sutras in Shandong presents inscriptions on all mountains in Shandong other than those near Lake Dongping 東平湖 (volume 1) and the city of Zoucheng 鄒城 (volume 2), with the exception of Taishan 泰山 (to be covered in volume 4). 

The northernmost entry in this volume is a lost inscription (ca. 526) once situated among the sculptures at Yellow Stone Cliff 黄石崖, south of Jinan 濟南. Zheng Yan 鄭岩 analyzes the art historical significance of this site. Inscriptions under the open sky occur elsewhere at Mount Culai 徂徕 (dated 570), Mount Fenghuang 鳳凰山 (ca. 563 and 921), Mount Shuiniu 水牛山 (ca. 560), Mount Tao 陶山 (second half, 6th c.), and Mount Long 龍山 (second half, 6th c.), this last site discovered only in 2008. Lost inscriptions on Mounts Jian 尖山 (dated 575), Yang 陽山 (second half, 6th c.), and Ziyang (second half, 6th c.; here identified for the first time) have been reconstructed based on extant rubbings, epigraphic literature, and archaeological evidence. While “Perfection of Wisdom” now emerges as the key doctrinal concept in the Shandong mountains, the names of Buddhas, of which “Buddha King of Great Emptiness” is especially conspicuous, engender visions of cosmic time and space.

All engravings are fully documented with photographs and rubbings; they are transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed. This research has been conducted under the auspices of the Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften by an international team led by Lothar Ledderose and supported by the cultural authorities in China. The volumes, bilingual in Chinese and English, address a wide audience.

Saturday, June 17, 2017

雲岡石窟の考古学: 遊牧国家の巨石仏をさぐる

Author:
岡村秀典 (OKAMURA, Hidenori)

Publisher:
臨川書店

Publication Date:
June 2017

Abstract:

日中両国でいまなお平行線をたどる雲岡石窟の編年説に挑む!!
敦煌・龍門とならび中国三大石窟の一つである雲岡石窟。京都大学人文科学研究所の前身である東方文化研究所の水野清一・長廣敏雄は、日中両国が戦火を交える最中、世界に前例のない石窟の悉皆調査に踏み出した――人文研に蔵する膨大な資料と写真群を整理してきた著者が、日中間でいまなお平行線をたどる雲岡の編年説に挑む!200点を超える貴重な図版を収録。



Table of Contents:

はじめに

第一章 雲岡石窟をめぐる歴史
 第一節 石窟前史
 第二節 文献にみえる北魏の石窟寺
 第三節 碑文にみえる復興事業
 第四節 発見と調査
第二章 雲岡石窟は如何にして造られたのか
 第一節 石窟の源流をたどる
 第二節 従来の年代観と新しい編年案
 第三節 未曾有の大工事
第三章 大仏窟の成立
 第一節 巨石仏の造像――前1期
 第二節 未完の大仏窟――前2期
 第三節 中央丘陵に広がる大仏窟――前3期
 第四節 雲岡前期の彫像
 第五節 大仏と皇帝
第四章 仏殿窟の成立
 第一節 双窟の出現――中1期
 第二節 馮太后の顕彰事業
 第三節 民間の造像――太和七年龕
第五章 中国式木造建築をかたどった石窟
 第一節 仏殿窟の完成――中2期
 第二節 双窟と「二聖」
 第三節 変容する仏殿窟――中3期
 第四節 塔廟窟と漢式服制の成立
第六章 雲岡石窟その後
 第一節 洛陽遷都後の中小窟――雲岡後期
 第二節 隋唐時代の仏三尊像
 第三節 遼金時代における石窟寺の復興

参考文献
あとがき
索引

Monday, June 12, 2017

Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays

Author: 
Fu Xinian

Editor:
Nancy S. Steinhardt

Translator:
Alexandra Harrer

Publication date:
6 June 2017

Publisher:
Princeton University Press




Abstract:

Fu Xinian is considered by many to be the world's leading historian of Chinese architecture. He is an expert on every type of Chinese architecture from every period through the nineteenth century, and his work is at the cutting edge of the field. Traditional Chinese Architecture gathers together, for the first time in English, twelve seminal essays by Fu Xinian. This wide-ranging book pays special attention to the technical aspects of the building tradition since the first millennium BC, and Fu Xinian's signature drawings abundantly illustrate its nuances.

The essays delve into the modular basis for individual structures, complexes, and cities; lateral and longitudinal building frames; the unity of sculpture and building to create viewing angles; the influence of Chinese construction on Japanese architecture; and the reliability of images to inform us about architecture. Organized chronologically, the book also examines such topics as the representation of architecture on vessels in the Warring States period, early Buddhist architecture, and the evolution of imperial architecture from the Tang to Ming dynasty. A biography of Fu Xinian and a detailed Chinese-English glossary are included.

Table of Contents:

Biography of Fu Xinian 傅熹年 xxv

1 Representations of Architecture on Vessels of the Warring States Period 1

2 Reconstruction of Northern Dynasties Buildings Based on Relief Sculpture and Murals in Cave-Temples at Maijishan 31

3 Early Buddhist Architecture in China 79

4 The Development of Timber-Frame Architecture during the Two Jins and the Northern and Southern Dynasties 97

5 Architectural Features of the Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui and Tang Periods in China as Reflected in Japanese Architecture of the Asuka and Nara Periods 140

6 Hanyuan Hall at Daminggong in Tang Chang'an 167

7 The Module in Tang Architecture 209

8 Imperial Architecture of Tang through Ming and Its Relation to Other Architecture 226

9 The Problem of Pillar Displacement with Respect to the Characteristics of Song Construction 253

10 Song Architecture in South China and Its Relation to Japanese Great Buddha-Style Architecture of the Kamakura Period 273

11 Northern Song Architecture in the Painting A Thousand Li of Rivers and Mountains by Wang Ximeng 296

12 Typical Design Features of Ming Palaces and Altars in Beijing 315

Saturday, June 10, 2017

[Dissertation] Writing as Weaving: Intertextuality and the Huainanzi’s Self-Fashioning as an Embodiment of the Way

Author:
Tobias Benedikt Zürn

School:
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Defended:
2016

Advisers:
Mark Meulenbeld; Mark Csikszentmihalyi

Abstract:

In her seminal essay “Against Interpretation” from 1964, Susan Sontag (1933-2004) tackled the dominant position of interpretation as the default mode of engagements with cultural objects. Since she sounded the call to defy the common hermeneutic strategy of emphasizing content over form more than fifty years ago, the phenomenon of privileging the production and deduction of meaning over the immediate presence of cultural objects persists in the Humanities. In my specific case, scholars in the field of Early China still read scriptures predominantly within an assumed philosophical context displaying a reductionist approach to writings that precludes from the outset the possibility of any non-discursive function(s) for texts. In other words, their interpretations rarely consider textual artifacts to be agents within contexts such as ritual or gift exchanges. My dissertation, titled “Writing as Weaving: Intertextuality and the Huainanzi’s Self-Fashioning as an Embodiment of the Way,” addresses this issue from the vantage point of the Huainanzi 淮南子, a highly constructed and intertextual scripture from the second century BCE that scholars have traditionally read in philosophical terms. Contrary to its current interpretation as an encyclopedic collection of philosophical treatises, the dissertation shows that the Huainanzi, which Liu An 劉安 (ca. 179-122 BCE, r. 164-122 BCE), the king of Huainan 淮南, presumably presented in 139 BCE at his inaugural visit to his nephew Emperor Wu 漢武帝 (born Liu Che 劉徹; 156-87 BCE, r. 141-87 BCE), had been fashioned as a powerful manifestation of the Way (dao 道). 


In the first part of the dissertation, I demonstrate that the Huainanzi employs at least the three images of a tree’s root (ben 本), a chariot wheel’s hub (gu 轂) or axle (zhu 軸), and a weaving (jingwei 經緯) or knotting (jigang 紀綱) texture that are commonly associated with the cosmos and the power (de 德) of the Dao to create a homology between the Liu clan’s scripture (Liushi zhi zhu 劉氏之書), the sage, and the Way. Hence, I propose that the Huainanzi had been fashioned in image (xiang 象) of the force that underlies the organization of the universe. In the second part of the dissertation, I showcase through the example of weaving that the Huainanzi is not merely depicted in homological terms with the Way. Based on a perceived correlation of the practices of writing and weaving during the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), I suggest that the Huainanzi in fact mimics and implements the cosmic process of weaving in its design and intertextual writing practice. By inserting and connecting various traces (ji 跡) of the words (yan 言) and deeds (shi 事) of pre-Han writers and kings in its texture, Liu An and his workshop apparently fashioned the Liu clan’s scripture both as being in image and as an embodiment of the Way (tidao 體道)—of the very force that connects and weaves together the celestial patterns (tianwen 天文) and terrestrial forms (dixing 地形) into a cosmic texture. Consequently, I speculate in my conclusion that Liu An and his workshop might have created the Liu clan’s scripture in image and as an embodiment of the Way in order to produce an wuwei-performing textual artifact that fulfills a similar role as the sage. By belonging to the Dao’s universal image or appearance category (xiang zhi lei 像之類 or xinglei 形類), the Huainanzi like the sage would create resonating correspondences (ganying 感應) with all the Myriad Beings (wan wu 萬物) and therefore would be able to impact and organize the entire world. Accordingly, my dissertation claims that we should further explore the possibility of non-discursive functions for Liu An’s miscellaneous and highly intertextual texture and potentially many other early Chinese texts. In fact, we should renegotiate the Huainanzi’s current and almost naturally assumed categorization as a “mere” encyclopedia and/or miscellaneous collection of philosophical treatises that educates about rather than actualizes or effects sagely rulership and cosmic order.

Thursday, June 8, 2017

アジア仏教美術論集 東アジア—(後漢・三国・南北朝)

Editor:
濱田 瑞美 (HAMADA Tamami)

Publisher:
中央公論美術出版

Publication Date:
May 2017



Abstract:

インドに興った仏教はどのように受容されたのか。中国固有の伝統思想との交渉、民族間の対立、割拠する王権や僧団とのかかわりの中で展開された多彩な「仏のかたち」を浮かび上がらせる18篇の論考を集録

Table of Contents:

総論 後漢から南北朝期の仏教美術―仏教の受容と仏像のかたち/濱田瑞美

1 仏教受容早期の仏教美術

漢代の立体人物像にみる具象と抽象―中国における仏像制作の前史として/楢山滿照
中国早期仏像の諸問題―近年報告された長江流域の作例をめぐって/金子典正
北涼石塔にあらわれた易経八卦と七仏一弥勒造像/殷光明

2 南北朝前期の仏教美術

中国式仏像の出現/岩井共二
北魏平城期の雲岡石窟/岡村秀典
北魏平城時代の山西における石造単独像について―如来像と重層塔を中心に齋藤龍一
龍門石窟北魏窟/久野美樹
四川で出土した南北朝時代の仏教石像をめぐって/肥田路美

3 南北朝後期の仏教美術

敦煌石窟西魏窟/田林啟
北朝鄴城の趙彭城北朝仏寺と北呉庄仏教造像坑出土像/朱岩石·何利群
東魏・北斉の響堂山と青州造像の比較研究/唐仲明
河北出土北朝期白玉像考/徐男英
小南海石窟の観経変について/大石克成
麦積山石窟造像研究―北周窟を中心として/八木春生
護法神信仰から見る南北朝時代中国仏教の一側面/大島幸代

4 仏教美術の周辺

道教の成立と初期道教美術/小幡みちる
山東省の石経/クラウディア·ヴェンツェル
水浴寺石窟における寄進と記念/ケイト·リングレト

Wednesday, June 7, 2017

Military Thought in Early China

Author:
Christopher C. Rand

Publication Date:
June 2017

Publisher:
SUNY




Abstract:

This study of the philosophy of war in early China examines the recurring debate, from antiquity through the Western Han period (202 BCE–8 CE), about how to achieve a proper balance between martial (wu 武) force and civil (wen 文) governance in the pursuit of a peaceful state. Rather than focusing solely on Sunzi’s Art of War and other military treatises from the Warring States era (ca. 475–221 BCE), Christopher C. Rand analyzes the evolution of this debate by examining a broad corpus of early Han and  pre-Han texts, including works uncovered in archeological excavations during recent decades. What emerges is a framework for understanding early China’s military philosophy as an ongoing negotiation between three major alternatives: militarism, compartmentalism, and syncretism. Military Thought in Early China offers a look into China’s historical experience with a perennial issue that is not only of continuing relevance to modern-day China but also pertinent to other world states seeking to sustain strong and harmonious societies.

Table of Contents:

Preface
Prologue

1. The Emergence of the Wen/Wu Problem

The Achievement of Balance
The Western Zhou Solution
Evolution in Chunqiu Times
New Solutions in the Zhanguo 戰國 Era
            Militarism
            Compartmentalism
            Syncretism
Conclusion

2. The Metaphysics of Generalship

The General as Sage
Psychical Power
Metaphysical Dynamics
The Ultimate Battle
Conclusion


Thursday, June 1, 2017

中國史學 (Chūgoku shigaku) vol. 26

Editor:
中國史學會 (Tōkyō-to Hachiōji-shi : Chūgoku Shigakkai)

Publisher:
朋友書店

Publication Date:
October, 2016


Table of Contents:

Emotions and Rumors(Mark Edward Lewis)

《史記》與《趙正書》―歷史記憶的戰爭(陳侃理)

1912年-1954年中國漢代畫像石的收集與硏究(周雯)

中國近世士人文化硏究“心史”傾向―評趙園“明淸之際士大夫硏究”系列著作(江湄)

北宋前期改作五代史之硏究(李卓穎)

思想的載體―近代中國詞彙/概念史的硏究回顧與展望(陳建守)

漢代墳墓祭祀畫像における死生觀硏究の現狀(角谷常子)

漢唐閒における郊廟雅樂について―東晉と南朝の閒の斷絕を中心としてみた(戶川貴行)

中國イスラームの硏究動向(中西竜也)


Wednesday, May 31, 2017

中国古代の貨幣―お金をめぐる 人びとと暮らし

Author:
柿沼 陽平 (Kakinuma, Yōhei)  

Publisher:
吉川弘文館

Publication Date:
January 2015



Abstract:

人間の貨幣への欲望はいつ生じたのか。中国古代の出土資料をもとに貨幣の起源を探り出し、秦漢帝国が「貨幣統一」をめざした真相に迫る。また、商品売買と価格競争の実態や、官吏の給与体系、貧民街の様相にいたるまで、人びとの日常的な生活風景を活写。貨幣の社会的意味と、贈与に関わる慣習や作法を解き明かして、現代貨幣の意義をも照射する。

Table of Contents:

中国古代貨幣の世界へ―プロローグ
貨幣と国家
 中国貨幣史の源流
 半両銭の形と意味
 戦国秦と半両銭
 帝国貨幣の胎動
競合する貨幣たち
 戦国秦漢時代の物価制度
 価格競争のゆくえ
 複数貨幣の並存と競存
 並存する経済圏
 中国古代の市場で買う
人びとをつなぐ貨幣
 生計と日常
 富貴を欲し、貧賎を悪む
 買物帰りの風景
 交換の原理と場
 貨幣と贈与の作法
中国古代貨幣の特殊性―エピローグ

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

Das Altertum vergegenwärtigen: Eine Studie zum Shuijing zhu des Li Daoyuan

Author:
Jörg Henning Hüsemann

Publication Date:
27.04.2017



Publisher:
Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag

Abstract: 
Rivers have shaped the history and culture of Imperial China and have been treated in many genres of Chinese writing, including poetry, travelogues, historiography, as well as in technical and geographic texts. Li Daoyuan’s 酈道元 (?-527) Shuijing zhu 水經注 (Commentary on the Water Classic) is a seminal geographic work of the early mediaeval period, but as this study shows, the significance of this text goes beyond geography. It is an important, but often neglected source for the history, culture, and literature of early China. (via H-Asia)

Monday, May 29, 2017

殷代青銅器の生産体制: 青銅器と銘文の製作からみる工房分業

Author:
鈴木舞 (Mai Suzuki)

Publisher:
六一書房

Publication Date:
May 2017


Abstract:

現在実在が証明されている中国最古の王朝、殷。ここで製作された青銅器・またそこに刻まれた銘文について、近年注目される製作技術に基づく分類、また青銅器銘文の文字形態と製作法の分析という新たな研究法をとおして、殷代青銅器生産の実態に迫ります。(東京大学博士論文に加筆刊行)

Table of Contents:

第1章 殷代青銅器生産研究の現状と課題
 第1節 殷とその遺跡
 第2節 編年の設定
 第3節 古代中国における青銅器生産
 第4節 文字資料にみられる青銅器製作者
 第5節 問題の所在と研究方法
 第6節 青銅器の製作方法
 第7節 用語の定義
第2章 鄭州商城における青銅爵の製作
 第1節 東京大学文学部列品室所蔵青銅爵について
 第2節 比較資料の提示
 第3節 二里岡期青銅爵の編年に関する再検討
 第4節 製作技術に関する検討
 第5節 青銅器製作工房遺跡に関する検討
 第6節 小結
第3章 盤龍城遺跡における青銅容器の製作
 第1節 盤龍城遺跡に関する研究史の整理と問題の所在
 第2節 饕餮紋の分類
 第3節 器種ごとの検討
 第4節 二里岡期の青銅器製作地点
 第5節 小結
第4章 殷墟青銅器銘文の字体と工房
 第1節 関連する問題の整理
 第2節 婦好墓青銅器群に関する検討
 第3節花園荘東地54号墓青銅器群に関する検討
 第4節 戚家荘東地269号墓青銅器群に関する検討
 第5節 大司空303号墓青銅器群に関する検討
 第6節 青銅器製作工房遺跡からの検討
 第7節 小結
第5章 殷代青銅武器銘文に関する考察
 第1節 検討の目的と方法
 第2節 武器銘文の集成と分類
 第3節 小結
第6章 殷代における青銅器生産
 第1節 各章の要点
 第2節 殷代における青銅器生産


Friday, May 26, 2017

[Dissertation] The Invention of Chinese Buddhist Poetry: Poet-Monks in Late Medieval China (c. 760–960 CE)

Author: 
Thomas J. Mazanec

School:
Princeton University

Defended:
2017

Abstract:
            
This dissertation presents an alternative history of late medieval literature, one which traces the development of Chinese Buddhist poetry into a fully autonomous tradition. It does so through a careful study of the works of poet-monks in the late medieval period (760–960), especially Guanxiu (832–913) and Qiji (864–937?). Weaving together the frayed threads of the literary traditions they inherited, these poet-monks established a tradition of elite Buddhist poetry in classical Chinese that continued in East Asia until the twentieth century. This dissertation also breaks new methodological ground by using digital tools to analyze and display information culled from medieval sources, and by using poetry composition manuals to understand medieval Chinese poetry on its own terms.
            
The introduction systematically analyzes the meanings of the concept of “religious literature” and situates this study of poet-monks therein. Part I, comprised of chapters 2, 3, and 4, presents a social history of poet-monks first by examining the invention of the term “poet-monk” in the late eighth century and its development until the tenth, then by mapping literary relations in the late medieval period using social network analysis. It demonstrates the existence and importance of poet-monks to the literary culture of this time. Part II, comprised of chapters 5 and 6, turns to the monks’ poetics at their most extreme: first the wild excess of repetition in song, madness, and incantation; then the austere devotion of “bitter intoning” (kuyin) and the identification of poetry with meditation. Both extremes are the fruit of the poet-monks’ deliberate mixing of literary and religious practices. The conclusion brings the various threads together to show how the poet-monks identified their religious and literary practices, hints at why their work had been neglected in both Buddhist and classical literary circles, and reflects on the implications of this dissertation for the study of religious poetry.
            
Thus, this dissertation provides one way of answering the question of how to define religious poetry and, in the process, sheds light on an overlooked corner of Chinese literary history, reconstructing an entire subtradition to demonstrate their fusion of religious and literary practices.  


Monday, May 22, 2017

Workshop "The Good Life and the Art of Feeling: Emotions as Skills in Chinese and Graeco-Roman Ethics"

(via Warp, Weft, and Way: Chinese and Comparative Philosophy 中國哲學與比較哲學)

Venue:
Institute for Philosophy, University of Bern

Date:
June 7, 2017 - June 9, 2017


Agenda:

Wednesday, June 7

The Comparative Perspective. Introductory Remarks. 
David Machek, Richard King and Anders Sydskjør, University of Berne

9–10 Passion and Politics in Plato and Xunzi. Some remarks.
Richard King, University of Berne 

Znüni (Coffee Break)

10.30–11.30 Aristotle on Eating Sweets in Theatre and Akrasia.
David Machek, University ofBerne

11.30–12.30 The Epistemic Value of Emotions. 
Fabrice Teroni, University of Geneva

Zmittag (Lunch and Rest)

14–15 Cèyĭn in the Mencius.
Winnie Sung, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

15–16 Naturalness and Excessiveness of Emotions in Cicero and the Peripatetics.
Georgia Tsouni, University of Berne

Zvieri (Coffee Break)

16.30–17.30 A Besire Theory of Action: The Significance of Wang Yangming's Liangzhi (Good Knowledge). 
Yong Huang, Chinese University of Hong kong

17.30–18.30 The Relation between Logos and Pathos in Evagrius's Praktikos. 
Kelly Harrison, University of Fribourg

Thursday, June 8

8–9 How Not to Feel What There Is to Feel: Cynic Apatheia, Atomist Ataraxia, Stoic Apatheia. 
Margaret Graver, Dartmouth College

9–10 Zhuangzi's Doctrine of No-Emotions. 
David Chai, Chinese University of Hong kong

10–11 Active Emotions in Stoicism: Feeling as a Kind of Doing. 
Brad Inwood, Yale University

Znüni (Coffee Break)

11.30–12.30 Responsiveness
(Ying) in Performance: A Relational Account of Self and World in the Zhuangzi. 
Karyn Lai, University of New South Wales, Sydney

12.30–13.30 How Passions
Give Way to Emotions in Stoicism. 
Vladimír Mikeš, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague

Zmittag (Lunch and Rest)


Friday, May 19, 2017

Old Society, New Belief: Religious Transformation of China and Rome, ca. 1st-6th Centuries

Editors:
Mu-chou Poo, H. A. Drake, and Lisa Raphals

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Publication Date:
June 2017




Abstract:

In the first century of the Common Era, two new belief systems entered long-established cultures with radically different outlooks and values: missionaries started to spread the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth in Rome and the Buddha in China. Rome and China were not only ancient cultures, but also cultures whose elites felt no need to receive the new beliefs. Yet a few centuries later the two new faiths had become so well-established that their names were virtually synonymous with the polities they had entered as strangers. Although there have been numerous studies addressing this phenomenon in each field, the difficulty of mastering the languages and literature of these two great cultures has prevented any sustained effort to compare the two influential religious traditions at their initial period of development.

This book brings together specialists in the history and religion of Rome and China with a twofold aim. First, it aims to show in some detail the similarities and differences each religion encountered in the process of merging into a new cultural environment. Second, by juxtaposing the familiar with the foreign, it also aims to capture aspects of this process that could otherwise be overlooked. This approach is based on the general proposition that, when a new religious belief begins to make contact with a society that has already had long honored beliefs, certain areas of contention will inevitably ensue and changes on both sides have to take place. There will be a dynamic interchange between the old and the new, not only on the narrowly defined level of "belief," but also on the entire cultural body that nurtures these beliefs. Thus, this book aims to reassess the nature of each of these religions, not as unique cultural phenomena but as part of the whole cultural dynamics of human societies.

Thursday, May 18, 2017

Les monnaies de la Chine ancienne: Des origines à la fin de l’Empire

Author:
Thierry, François

Publication Date:
May, 2017

Publisher:
Paris: Les Belles Lettres



Table of Contents:

INTRODUCTION 
Une remarquable anomalie
La conception chinoise de la monnaie 
Penser la monnaie 

I-DES ORIGINES A LA FIN DES ROYAUMES COMBATTANTS 
1- AUX ORIGINES DE LA MONNAIE 
A- Les cauris 
B- Une révolution : l’homme peut fabriquer de la monnaie 
C- Premières bêches et premiers couteaux 
2- LA MONETARISATION DE LA SOCIETE 
A- Le monnayage traditionnel des Royaumes Combattants. 
B - La valeur intrinsèque et ses limites 
C- Les pseudo-monnaies 

II-L’UNIFICATION MONETAIRE 
1- LES SOURCES ECRITES 
2-L’APPORT DE L’ARCHEOLOGIE 
A-Les fiches de Shuihudi
B- Les dépôts monétaires 
3-LA MONNAIE AU QIN 
A-Monnaies et circulation monétaire 
B-Une classification des banliang 
C-Les autres monnaies 
D-Les banliang de l’empire de Qin (220-206 av. J.-C.) 

III-LA MONNAIE DES HAN DE L’OUEST 
1-LA QUESTION DU MONOPOLE D’EMISSION 
Le peuple 
Les royaumes 
L’administration impériale 
La marche au monopole
2-LA SUCCESSION DES EMISSIONS MONETAIRES 
Les yujia banliang (209-175 av. J.-C.) 
Les bazhu qian (186 av. J.-C.) 
Les wufen qian (182 av. J.-C.) 
Les sizhu banliang (175 av. J.-C.)
Les sanzhu qian (140-136 av. J.-C.) 
Les banliang de Wudi (136 av. J.-C.) 
3-LE TEMPS DES REFORMES 
Les billets de cuir et les monnaies de métal blanc (119 av. J.-C.) 
Les junguo wuzhu (118-113 av. J.-C.) 
Les chice wuzhu (115-113 av. J.-C.) 
Les sanguan wuzhu (à partir de 118 av. J.-C.) 
4-LA CLASSIFICATION DES WUZHU DE WUDI ET DE SES SUCCESSEURS 


Saturday, May 13, 2017

A Pure Mind in a Clean Body: Bodily Care in the Buddhist Monasteries of Ancient India and China

Authors:
Ann Heirman & Mathieu Torck

Publication Year:
2013

Publisher:
Gent: Academia Press




Abstract:

Buddhist monasteries, in both Ancient India and China, rightfully attract the attention of many scholars, discussing historical backgrounds, institutional networks or influential masters. Still, some aspects of monastic life have not yet received the attention they deserve. This book therefore aims to study some of the most essential, but often overlooked, issues of Buddhist life, namely, practices and objects of bodily care. For monastic authors, bodily care primarily involves bathing, washing, cleaning, shaving and trimming the nails, activities of everyday life that are performed by lay people and monastics alike. In this sense, they provide a potential bridge between two worlds that are constantly interacting with each other: monastic people and their lay followers.


Friday, May 12, 2017

睡虎地秦简と墓葬からみた楚·秦·漢

Author:
松崎つね子 (Matsuzaki Tsuneko)

Publisher:
汲古書院

Publication Date:
April, 2017



Table of Contents:

解題に代えて(髙村武幸)

第一章 睡虎地一一号秦墓竹簡「編年記」よりみた墓主「喜」について

第二章 湖北における秦墓の被葬者について
――睡虎地一一号秦墓、被葬者「喜」と関連して――

第三章 楚・秦・漢墓の変遷より秦の統一をみる
――頭向・葬式・墓葬構造等を通じて――

第四章 戦国楚の木俑と鎮墓獣について

第五章 戦国秦漢の墓葬に見る地下世界の変遷
――馬王堆漢墓を手がかりに――

第六章 漆器烙印文字に見る秦漢髹漆工芸経営形態の変遷とその意味

第七章 「㳉」について
――『秦律』「效律」解釈を通じて――

第八章 睡虎地秦簡にみる秦の馬牛管理
――龍崗秦簡・馬王堆一号漢墓「副葬品目録」もあわせて――

第九章 睡虎地秦簡よりみた秦の家族と国家

第一〇章 睡虎地秦簡における「非公室告」・「家罪」

あとがき・編者後記・英文目次・中文目次・索 引

Saturday, May 6, 2017

Age of Empires: Art of the Qin and Han Dynasties

Editor:
Zhixin Sun

Publisher:
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Publication Date:
April 24, 2017



Abstract:
Age of Empires presents the art and culture of China during one of the most critical periods of its history – the four centuries from 221 B.C. to A.D. 200-- when, for the first time, people of diverse backgrounds were brought together under centralized imperial rule that fostered a new and unified identity. The Qin and Han empires represent the “classical” era of Chinese civilization, coinciding in both importance and timing with the Greco-Roman period in the West. Under the short-lived Qin and centuries-long Han, warring principalities were united under a common emperor, creating not only political and intellectual institutions but also the foundation for a Chinese art, culture, and national identity that lasted over two millennia.  Over 150 works from across the full breadth of Chinese artistic and decorative media-- including ceramics, metalwork, textiles, armor, sculpture, and jewelry – are featured in this book and attest to the unprecedented role of art in ancient Chinese culture. These stunning objects, among them soldiers from the renowned terracotta army of Qin Shihuang, China’s first emperor, are drawn from institutions and collections in China and appear here together for the first time.

Essays by leading scholars, accompanied by dazzling new photography of the objects, address the sweeping societal changes underway, and trace a progression from the early, formative years through unprecedented sophistication and technical accomplishment—embodied in an artistic legacy that reverberates in China’s national identity to this day.

Table of Contents:

1. The Making of China: The Establishement of a Lasting Political Paradigm and Cultural Identity During the Qin and Han Dynasties
(Zhixin Sun)

2. Qin and Han Political institutions and Administration
(Robin D. S. Yates)

3. Military Armaments of the Qin and Han
(Yang Hong)

4. The Qin and Han Imperial Citiy: Modeling and Visualizing Architecture
(Cary Y. Liu)

5. The Ingenuity of Qin-Han Craftsmanship
(Pengliang Lu) 

6. Popular Beliefs in the Qin an Han Dynasties
(Lillian Lan-ying Tseng 曾藍瑩) 

7. Qin-Han China and the Outside World
(I-tien Hsing 邢義田)

Monday, May 1, 2017

Origins of Chinese Political Philosophy: Studies in the Composition and Thought of the Shangshu (Classic of Documents)

Editors:
Martin Kern, and Dirk Meyer

Publisher:
Brill

Publication Date:
May 2017




Abstract:

Origins of Chinese Political Philosophy is the first book in any Western language to explore the composition, language, thought, and early history of the Shangshu (Classic of Documents), one of the pillars of the Chinese textual, intellectual, and political tradition. In examining the text from multiple disciplinary and intellectual perspectives, Origins of Chinese Political Philosophy challenges the traditional accounts of the nature and formation of the Shangshu and its individual chapters. As it analyzes in detail the central ideas and precepts given voice in the text, it further recasts the Shangshu as a collection of dynamic cultural products that expressed and shaped the political and intellectual discourses of different times and communities.


Table of Contents:

Introduction 1
Martin Kern and Dirk Meyer

1 Language and the Ideology of Kingship in the “Canon of Yao 堯典” 23
Martin Kern

2 Competing Voices in the Shangshu 62
Kai Vogelsang

3 Recontextualization and Memory Production: Debates on Rulership as
Reconstructed from “Gu ming” 顧命 106
Dirk Meyer


Sunday, April 30, 2017

西晉時代の都城と政治

Author:
田中一輝 (Tanaka Kazuki)

Publisher:
朋友書店

Publication Year:
2017




Abstract:

魏晉期の都城構造を分析することで、その皇帝の権威との関係を解明したうえで、西晉政治史の諸問題を検討し、西晉一代における皇帝の権威・権力の実態と変遷の過程をたどり、それらが以後の時代に与えた影響を明らかにする。(出版社による紹介文)

Table of Contents:

緒言
第一章 魏晉洛陽城研究序説
はじめに
第一節 後漢・魏晉洛陽城の研究史
第二節 二官説の検討
第三節 宣陽門の位置と中軸線問題
おわりに

第二章 魏晉洛陽城研究序説補遺
はじめに
第一節 後漢崇徳殿について
第二節 『三国志』裴松之注
第三節 東官と西官
第四節 中軸線の有無
おわりに

第三章 魏晉洛陽城の高層建築:「高さ」から見た都城と政治
はじめに
第一節 凌雲台とその「高さ」
第二節 高層建築の「高さ」と政治の関係
むすびにかえて

第四章 西晉の東宮と外戚楊氏
はじめに
第一節 武帝による東宮改革
第二節 賈充・楊珧の東宮入り
第三節 太康三年以降の東宮三傅
第四節 楊駿の奪権
第五節 恵帝即位後の東宮
おわりに

第五章 西晉恵帝期の政治における賈后と詔
はじめに
第一節 恵帝即位直後の政変
第二節 元康年間の政治
第三節 賈后の死とその後の政局
おわりに

第六章 西晉後期における皇帝と宗室諸王
はじめに
第一節 内乱の拡大と皇帝・宗室諸王
第二節 東海王越の挙兵と宗室諸王の権威
1.東海王越の挙兵/2.永嘉年間における東海王越と懐帝
第三節 東晉の成立へ:むすびにかえて

第七章 永嘉の乱の実像
はじめに
第一節 初期の情勢
1.劉淵の初期の軍事行動/2.汲桑の乱の顛末/3.情勢の総括
第二節 挟撃戦略の確立とその成果
第三節 永嘉四年以降の情勢
おわりに

第八章 玉璽の行方:正統性の相克
はじめに
第一節 八王の乱・永嘉の乱と玉璽の行方
第二節 東晉による玉璽の「回収」
おわりに

結語

Thursday, April 27, 2017

[Dissertation] The Continued Creation of Communities of Practice – Finding Variation in the Western Zhou Expansion (1046-771 BCE)

Author: 
Yitzchak Jaffe

School: 
Harvard University

Defended: 
2016

Abstract:

This work explores the question of when and how China became Chinese by studying state sponsored colonial expansion and intercultural interactions during the Western Zhou period (1046-771 BCE). Because Confucius and his followers considered this period the golden age of civilization, scholars have traditionally paid little attention to existing ethnic and cultural diversity and created the illusion that Chinese culture, in Han style, already existed at this early date. However, my investigation of everyday activities, food preparation and ritual events surrounding mortuary customs, highlights the complex relationship between the Zhou and the people they encountered. 

Following their conquest of the Shang polity in the middle of the 11th century BCE, the Zhou began a swift campaign of colonization during which members of the royal family were sent to defend and expand strategic zones around the new realm. The traditional narrative – one that focuses on the formation of the later unified Chinese Empire and civilization – sees the Zhou as those who, through military expansion and conquest, successfully Sinicized and acculturated the peoples that would make up the Chinese world. 

Yet this narrative overemphasizes the homogeneity of Zhou identity and fails to account for the multifaceted nature of Chinese culture and origins. These interpretations have relied heavily on later historical texts and information gleaned from inscriptions of bronze ritual vessels, themselves biased towards the Zhou elite world view, while archaeology has played a second fiddle to historical reconstructions. 

This dissertation compared separate regions of the Zhou expansion: Gansu in the west, Shandong peninsula in the East and the Shanxi plains to the north of the Central Plains. Cemeteries were examined to investigate the mortuary customs of local people and ceramic vessels to study culinary traditions, in an effort to show how every day and ritual-specific practices and were influenced by the Zhou. Culinary research involved the detailed study and usewear analysis of freshly excavated ceramic assemblages to understand community specific cooking and serving practices. Ceramic assemblages from four pre-Zhou and Zhou sites in Shandong province were compared to sites in the core zone of the Zhou polity to assess the impact of the Zhou arrival. My analysis shows that each of the four sites observed its own community specific culinary and mortuary traditions: An increase in cooking vessel size at some, indicating a shift to larger eating parties, while at others the way food was cooked: from a mix of roasting and braising cooking modes to a focus on boiling and stewing. In Gansu the Zhou had little impact on the multitude of existing community-specific mortuary practices and remained separate from the local population, while in the Beijing area the Zhou invaders played down their military identity and allowed local groups to participate in their mortuary practices. 


Consequently, my study finds that the Zhou expansion did not result in the homogenization of the ancient cultural landscape, but instead that the Zhou influence had unequal results: from acceptance to rejection and mostly to its reorganization to suit local needs and agendas. The Zhou influence was regional in scope but local in outcome. In effect these interactions created various new forms of localized social identities across North China, which differ profoundly from the homogeneous Zhou elite culture depicted in the canonical histories. 

Saturday, April 22, 2017

[Dissertation] A Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Effects of the Xiongnu Empire on the Physical Health of Nomadic Groups in Iron Age Mongolia

Author:
Joseph, Veronica Adelle

Year:
2016

School:
Boston University

Abstract:

The Xiongnu Empire (c. 200 BC – AD 100) was the first instance of imperial level organization by nomadic groups of the Mongolian steppe. Over a century of historical and archaeological research has produced a large body of scholarship on the political, military, and sociocultural structures of Xiongnu society. This study adds to the growing body of recent bioarchaeological research by using multiple lines of evidence to address the impacts of empire formation on the physical health of those who lived under the influence of Xiongnu rule.

Models of Xiongnu empire formation posit stable access to Chinese agricultural goods and reduction in violent conflict as major motivating factors in establishing imperial-level organization among Mongolian nomadic groups. By gathering data from the skeletal remains of 349 individuals from 27 archaeological sites and analyzing the frequency of 10 dietary and health indicators, this study addresses these claims. The Xiongnu imperial expansion and administration resulted in the movement and/or displacement of nomadic groups, consequences that are documented in Chinese historical texts, but its impact on population structure is poorly understood. Craniometric data collected from this skeletal sample were used to conduct a model-bound biological distance analysis and fit to an unbiased relationship matrix to determine the amount of intra- and inter-group variation, and estimate the biological distance between different geographic and temporal groups.

This skeletal sample includes individuals from 19 Xiongnu-period sites located across the region under Xiongnu imperial control. Individuals from eight Bronze Age sites in Mongolia were included to establish pre-Xiongnu health status. One agricultural site within the Han empire, contemporaneous with the Xiongnu, was included for comparison.

The results of this study indicate that Xiongnu motivations for creating a nomadic empire were considerably more complex than current models suggest. Although historical texts document that the Xiongnu received agricultural products as tribute from China, dietary markers indicate the Xiongnu diet was more similar to that of their Bronze Age predecessors than to their agricultural Han neighbors. The movement of people across the Mongolian steppe during the Xiongnu period created a more phenotypically homogeneous population structure than that of previous Bronze Age groups.


Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The Xiongnu Empire: Ecological, Historical, and Archaeological Context
Chapter 3. Models of Nomadic Empire Formation and Research Questions 
Chapter 4. Bioarchaeological Models
Chapter 5. Research Collections and Data Sample
Chapter 6. Data Collection Methods
Chapter 7. Data Analysis
Chapter 8. Discussion
Chapter 9. Conclusion

Saturday, April 15, 2017

[Dissertation] Cult and Calendars in the Ancient Empires of Qin, Han, and Rome

Author:
Rebecca Robinson

School:
McGill University

Department:
Department of History and Classical Studies

Year:
2016

Abstract: 

Cult and Calendars in the Ancient Empires of Qin, Han, and Rome is a comparison of reforms made to imperial cult and calendar during the formative years of empire.  As distinct from ruler cult, I define imperial cult as cult activity worshiped both by the emperor and on his authority.  The early years of the Qin Han and Roman empires saw imperially-sponsored cult increase dramatically, and saw the positioning of the person of the emperor at the centre of all cult activity.  In both empires, reforms to state cult and calendars were initiated as part of a larger program of consolidating power around the person of the emperor.  Despite the very different challenges facing the emperors of Han and Rome, there is a remarkable similarity in the areas in which they chose to consolidate their power, as well as the methods through which they carried out their reforms.  In both empires, the rulers sought the advice of advisors from outside of the traditional elite, incorporating astronomical and religious knowledge from diverse regions and peoples.  This outside knowledge and practices were then incorporated into state cult, reshaping the way that the emperors and their subordinates worshipped.  I argue that these reforms to cult, and the incorporation of outside knowledge, was fundamental to the consolidation of power in the person of the emperor. 

Examining the expansion of cult practices, calendrical reforms, and spectacular performances, the dissertation uncovers the processes in the transformation of imperial cult to fit the changing needs of empire.  Rather than seeking parallels in belief systems or cult practice, the dissertation compares the ways in which religious institutions both shaped and communicated a new imperial order.  The juxtaposition of the two societies reveals not only the similarities and differences in these processes, but also the biases of historical sources and subsequent scholarship in both fields.